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An 8 year old, male, intact, Golden Retriever presented to a Jerusalem clinic with gingival proliferation and swelling of the mandible, nose and gingiva. 
Neoplasia was suspected and a gingival biopsy submitted.
 
Swollen gingivaPhoto courtesy of Dr. Ran Margalit
The histological section consisted of a nodule covered by markedly hyperplastic epithelium.
There was a submucosal proliferation of spindle shaped cells with plump basophilic nuclei and abundant cytoplasm with poorly defined borders, they were forming interlacing bands. Some areas were infiltrated by macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Occasional spindle cells and numerous macrophages contained numerous basophilic protozoal organisms, measuring 1-2 µm, interpreted as Leishmania sp.
 
Leishmania in macrophages Leishmania in fibroblast
 
 
It is recommended to consider leishmaniasis among the list of differentials of mucosal nodular lesions, at least in endemic areas.
 
References:
Leishmaniosis mimicking oral neoplasm in a dog: an unusual manifestation of an unusual disease in Finland. Saari S, Rasi J, Anttila M. Acta Vet Scand. 2000;41(1):101-4.

Nodular lesions of the tongue in canine leishmaniosis. Parpaglia ML, Vercelli A, Cocco R, Zobba R, Manunta ML. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2007 Oct;54(8):414-7.

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